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Medical Simulations

The major focus of the touch lab at IIT Madras is medical simulation. Medical SImulation is an important application of haptics that is emerging rapidly. Each issue in medical simulation is challenging right from modeling to training medical personnel.

Modeling Challenges:

Modeling soft tissue is an important issue in medical simulation because they exibit complex material properties. They are non-linear, anisotropic, viscoelastic and nonhomogeneous (usually layered). Moreover, soft tissues deform considerably under the application of relatively small loads. Measuring these properties of different tissues is been pursued by many reasearchers. As animal experiments are prohibited in the touch lab, we are using properties available in major literatures.

Real time simulation of these soft-tissue is challenging because the contact points between the tool and the tissue can occur at other than nodal points. Cutting, for example, is a computationally expensive task since it requires meshing and remeshing. Achieving this poses significant obstacles in real time application, given the high rate requirement of haptic rendering. We have developed Image Based Rendering techniques for medical simulation.

Simulation Challenges:

Performing tissue cutting is a clinical task that demands a high level of skill and precision from surgions. Minimally invasive surgery has been used in a range of procedures since the early sixties. Unfortunately, the lack of generalized guidelines for appropriate training, and credentialing has led to the widespread, unregulated introduction of laparoscopy, which has resulted in numerous operative complications. Advanced laparoscopic procedures (e.g hernia repairs, antireflux procedures, colectomy) require significantly greater skills than those for simple extirpative procedures (e.g cholecystectomy, splenectomy, adrenalectomy). The goal of our Laparoscopic Simulator is to simulate these advanced procedure.


Many surgeons believe that successful surgical training require highly realistic simulation trainers, even though low fidelity simulators have been used effectively for training in many domains. Our study aims at unravelling the relationship between the guiding forces and training effectiveness.

Virtual Tissue Cutting

Cutting simulation is one of the few challenges in the haptics research. We managed to solve the problem by separating the visual and haptics separately and computing the visual response and the haptics response seprately. We have implemented a Virtual Tissue Cutting Simulation System .

Other Resaerch Areas in our Lab:

    Human Haptics

  1. Three Radial Artery Pulse Sensor Design for Siddha Based Disease Diagnosis [link]
  2. Correlation between Two Point Discrimination with other measures of Sensory loss in Diabetic Mellitus Patients [link]
  3. Comparison of Law of mobility in Upper and Lower Extremities of Diabetic patients [link]
  4. A Study of Foot and Ankle Joint Mobility among Diabetic Subjects[link]
  5. Automation of Monitoring Hypnotic Analgesia [link]

    Machine Haptics

  1. Combat Tactile Jacket [link]
  2. Hybrid 1DOF Haptic Device [link]
  3. DC motor damping: A Strategy to increase Passive Stiffness of Haptic Devices [link]

    Computer Haptics

  1. Tangible Images [link]
  2. Recordable Haptic textures [link]

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Last Updated: May 26, 2008 4:45 PM Comments: Manivannan M