Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India
Thesis: Design and Development of Label-Free Optical Biosensors
Two novel, cost effective and field deployable sensing schemes for detection of bacteria and proteins have been demonstrated.
Bachelor of Engg. (1998-2002)
Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India
(Electronics & Instrumentation)
Professional Work Experience
August 2017 – Present
Associate Professor, Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT Madras
August 2011 – Present
Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT Madras
Mar 2009 – Feb 2011
Post Doctoral Fellow, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID
Worked on development of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based DNA biosensor, receptor mediated detection of explosives and applications of nanomaterials for development of drug delivery systems for anti-sense and anti-gene oligonucleotide based therapeutics.
Jan 2009 - Continued a part of Ph.D work
Research Associate, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India
The development of sensing modalities for field deployable biosensors. Improvements to the existing sensor probes were proposed. Some of the proposed sensor designs have been demonstrated successfully.
August 2002 – June 2003
Lecturer, GVP College of Engg, Visakhapatnam, India
Responsibilities consisted of teaching courses and running lab sessions.
Role: PI with Prof. Subrahmanyam (co-PI), Funded by: IGSTC, India
Scanning Kelvin Probe Equipment for Surface and Interface Analyses(Rs. 45.52 L)
Role: Co-PI with Prof. Subrahmanyam (PI), Funded by: DST, India
Development Of Microfluidics Based Healthcare Diagnostics (Rs. 200 L)
Role: Co-PI in IITM Team Project
Development of SERS based substrates for toxin detection (Rs. 163.55 L)
Role: Co-PI with Prof. Subrahmanyam (PI), Funded by: DRDE, Gwalior, India
Plasmonic Biosensors for Clinical Diagnosis (Rs. 15.0 L)
Role: PI, Funded by: IIT Madras, India
Biological Applications of Nanotechnology (BANTech)
Role:PDF, Funded by: University of Idaho, Moscow, USA
Functionalized Nanospring-mats for detection of Explosive Materials
Role:Co-Investigator, Funded by: Department of Defense, USA
Optoelectronic biosensors for waterborne pathogenic bacteria
Role: Graduate student, Funded by: Naval Material Research Lab, Ambernath
Center for excellence in Nanoelectronics
Role: Graduate student, Funded by: Ministry of IT & communications, Govt. of India
Polymeric waveguide based biosensors
Role: Graduate student, Funded by: Dept. of Biotechnology, Govt. of India
Microcantilever based biosensor for cardiac markers (i-sens)
Role: Graduate student, Funded by: Dept. of Science & Technology, Govt. of India
Updated on 01stDecember, 2017
Teaching and Guidance
AM1100 Engineering Mechanics (85 Students)
AM3010 Introduction to Biomechanics (37 students)
AM5140 Biomedical Instrumentation (19 students)
AM3020 Fundamentals of Medical Instrumentation (62 students)
AM3010 Introduction to Biomechanics (35 students)
AM5140 Biomedical Instrumentation (25 students)
AM3020 Fundamentals of Medical Instrumentation (36 students)
AM3010 Introduction to Biomechanics (20 students)
AM1100 Engineering Mechanics (85 students)
AM5520 Medical Electronics (17 students)
AM1100 Engineering Mechanics (34 students)
AM6514 Biomedical Sensors (4 students)
AM5520 Medical Electronics (10 students)
AM3020 Fundamentals of Medical Instrumentation (8 students)
Gowri A (Ph.D., Jan 2013)
Christina Christopher (Ph.D., Jul 2013)
Ramakrishna B (Ph.D., Dec 2011)
Hariharan Manoharan (Ph.D., Jan 2014)
Divagar Murugan (Ph.D., Jun 2017)
Kuzhandai Shamlee J (Ph.D., Jun 2017)
Swetha S Menon (Ph.D., Jun 2017)
Allwyn S Rajamani (Ph.D., Jan 2016)
Gayathri Subramanian (Summer Intern 2015)
Aashresha(M.Tech., Jun 2015)
Thrilok N (M.Tech., Jun 2015)
Ravikiran Reddy N (Dual Degree, Jun 2014)
Ali Javed (Dual Degree, Jun2014)
Priyanka V (M.S., Jul 2013)
Sanjuna S (Winter Intern, 2014)
Manojit Roy (M.Tech., 2014)
Aswini S (Summer Interns, 2013)
Kavita Pujari (Dual Degree, 2013)
Saicharan Mahendrakar (Dual Degree , 2013)
Mathews John (Summer Intern, 2012)
Ramya Ramesh (Summer Intern, 2012)
Deep Pokharel, undergraduate, Univ. of Idaho
Mason Fredrickson, undergraduate, Univ. of Idaho
Reshma Bharadwaj, project staff, IIT Bombay
Jitendra Satija, graduate, IIT Bombay
Kamini Thakare, project staff, IIT Bombay
Deepu A, project staff, IIT Bombay
Updated on 01stDecember, 2017
Fiber Optic Chemical and Biosensors for Clinical Diagnosis, Photonics for the 21st Century Symposium, IIT Madras, Chennai, India, 27th March 2017
Polymeric (PMMA) Optical Fiber Probes for Chemical and Biosensing: Fabrication, Surface modification and Attomolar analyte detection, International Workshop on Photonics Polymer and Innovation (IWPPI), 11-14, Oct, 2016, Hotel Sunvalley Nasu, Tochigi, Japan.
Fiber Optic Chemical and Biosensors, Workshop on Recent Advances in Biosensors 2016, 6-7 Oct 2016, DEBEL, Bangalore, India.
Fiber Optic Probes for Biosensors and Biomolecular Interaction Analysis: Sensor Design and Device Development, International conference on Optics within Life Sciences, 16-19, March, 2016, TIFR, Mumbai, India.
LSPR and SERS based Biosensors – Invited Talk, Indo-US International Workshop on Nanosensor Science & Technology 2013, NIST, Behrampur, Odisha, Mar 2013.
Biosensors: Concepts to Current Status, Indian National Conference on Applied Mechanics, 4-6, July, 2013, IIT Madras, Chennai, India.
Mass-sensitive and Spectroscopic Optical Techniques for Biomolecular Sensing – Invited Talk, Workshop on QCM and SAW Sensors, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, May 2013.
Design and Development of Optical Biosensors for Clinical Diagnosis and Environmental Monitoring, National Seminar on Biosensors and Wearable devices, Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore, 11th March, 2017.
Polymeric (PMMA) Optical Fiber Probes for Chemical and Biosensing: Fabrication, Surface modification and Attomolar analyte detection, VIT University, Vellore, 8th March 2017.
Design and Development of Optical Biosensors for Clinical Diagnosis and Environmental Monitoring, National Seminar on Advanced & Innovative Technology for Transforming Healthcare (AITTH) 2016, ITER, SoA University, Bhubaneswar, 16-17 September, 2016.
Fiber Optic Chemical and Biosensors: Sensor Design and Device Development, University of Southampton, UK, 24th May, 2016.
Recent advances in Clinical Diagnostics - Biosensors, Sensors and Biomedical Technology, VIT University, Vellore, India, 9th February, 2016.
Recent advances in Clinical Diagnostics - Biosensors (Keynote address), Faculty Development Programme on Recent advances and future focus of health care field in India, PSNA College of Engineering & Technology, Dundigul, 6th – 10th October, 2015.
Some Real World Problems and Solutions: A Research and Development Perspective, National Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Engineering (NCSPCE 2015), Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur, April 10-11, 2015
Fiber optic probes for biosensing and cancer research in 2nd Workshop On Ultrafast Photonic Processes And Interactions Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland 28th – 29th Jan. 2015. (via video conference)
Biomedical Applications of Nanomaterials – Invited Talk, National Seminar on Futuristic Trends of Nanocomposites and their Fabrication, RVR & JC college of Engg., Guntur, Sept 2013
Biosensors – Invited Lecture, Bio-Instrumentation'13, A value-addition course: concept to prototype, BMS college of Engg, Bangalore, Feb 2013.
Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS): Materials & Substrates – Seminar, Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, Jan 2013.
Biomedical Sensors – Invited Lecture, AICTE-QIP Short Term Training Program on Biomedical Systems, Signals & Images, IIT Madras, Nov 2011.
Before 2011 Functionalization of nanomaterials - a part of CHEM/AVS/MMBB/PHYS 414/514, Application of Nanomaterials in Biomolecular Engineering, Spring 2010, the Univ. of Idaho, Moscow
X-ray imaging as a part of BM632, Medical Instrumentation in 2006-07 at IIT Bombay
Computer Technology, Programming and Numerical Methods – A Ist year B.Tech course, 2002-03 at GVP College of Engg., A.P., India
BM659 Elements of Circuits and Instrumentation
BM600 Introduction to Biomedical Engineering during 2004-06 at IIT Bombay
Basic electronics lab course for Ist year B.Tech course, 2002-03 at GVP College of Engg., A.P., India
Updated on 01stDecember, 2017
Publications, Patents & Conferences
Graphene oxide coated U-bent plastic optical fiber based chemical sensor for organic solvents,
M Divagar, A Gowri, Sangeeth John, V. V. R. Sai, Sensors and Actuators B 262(2018) 1006- 1012, Available online,
Gold Sputtered U-Bent Plastic Optical Fiber Probes as SPR- and LSPR-Based Compact Plasmonic Sensors,
Christina Christopher, A. Subrahmanyam, V. V. R. Sai, Plasmonics (2017) pp 1-10, Available online,
PMMA Surface Functionalization using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Development of Plasmonically Active Polymer Optical Fiber Probes,
Priyanka Vasanthakumari, Zohreh Khosravi, V.V.R. Sai, Claus-Peter Klages Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 1-17 ,
Development of LSPR based U-bent plastic optical fiber sensors. A Gowri, VVR Sai Sensors and Actuators B 230 (2016) 536–543,
Evanescent Wave Absorbance based U-Bent Fiber Probe for Immunobiosensor with Gold Nanoparticle Labels. Bandaru Ramakrishna, VVR Sai
Sensors and Actuators B 226 (2016) 184–190
Self-Assembled Monolayers of Thiols Adsorbed on Au/ZnO-Functionalized Silica Nanosprings: Photoelectron Spectroscopy-Analysis and Detection of Vaporized Explosives. BA Fouetio Kengne, S Karmakar, M Kaura, VVR Sai, G Corti, IB Niraula, ACS applied materials & interfaces 6 (16), 13355-13366. doi: 10.1021/am504371k
Evanescent wave absorbance based fiber optic biosensor for label-free detection of E. coli at 280nm wavelength. R Bharadwaj, VVR Sai, K Thakare, A Dhawangale, T Kundu, S Titus, Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26 (7), 3367-3370doi:10.1016/j.bios.2010.12.014
Dendrimers in biosensors: Concept and applications. J Satija, VVR Sai, S Mukherji Journal of Materials Chemistry 21 (38), 14367-14386 doi: 10.1039/C1JM10527B
Silica nanosprings coated with noble metal nanoparticles: Highly active SERS substrates. VVR Sai, D Gangadean, I Niraula, JMF Jabal, G Corti, DN McIlroy The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 115 (2), 453-459 doi: 10.1021/jp109586f
Development of evanescent wave absorbance-based fibre-optic biosensor. T Kundu, VVR Sai, R Dutta, S Titas, P Kumar, S Mukherjee Pramana 75 (6), 1099-1113 doi: 10.1007/s12043-010-0193-6
Label-free fiber optic biosensor based on evanescent wave absorbance at 280nm. VVR Sai, T Kundu, C Deshmukh, S Titus, P Kumar, S Mukherji Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 143 (2), 724-730 doi:10.1016/j.snb.2009.10.021
Emerging use of nanostructure films containing capped gold nanoparticles in biosensors. J Satija, R Bharadwaj, VVR Sai, S Mukherji Nanotechnology, science and applications 3, 171 doi: 10.2147/NSA.S8981
Simple surface modification techniques for immobilization of biomolecules on SU-8. A Deepu, VVR Sai, S Mukherji
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 20 (1), 25-28 doi: 10.1007/s10856-008-3471-9
Novel U-bent fiber optic probe for localized surface plasmon resonance based biosensor. VVR Sai, T Kundu, S Mukherji
Biosensors and Bioelectronics 24 (9), 2804-2809 doi:10.1016/j.bios.2009.02.007
Immobilization of antibodies on polyaniline films and its application in a piezoelectric immunosensor VVR Sai, S Mahajan, AQ Contractor, S Mukherji Analytical chemistry 78 (24), 8368-8373 doi: 10.1021/ac060120a
An optical fiber sensor and method of fabricating the sensor. Gowri A and V V R Sai. Indian Patent Application No. 201641017866, filed 25th May, 2016.
Fiber optic Array Biosensor system with U-bent fiber sensor probes for multianalyte detection in clinical and pharmaceutical applications. Allwyn S, Bandaru Ramakrishna, Christina Christopher, V.V.R.Sai. Provisional Indian Patent Application No. 201641026626, filed 04th Aug, 2016
International conference presentations:
A Gowri and V V R Sai, " U-Bent Plastic Optical Fiber based Plasmonic Biosensor for Nucleic Acid Detection
Bandaru Ramakrishna, VVR Sai, Immunogold-silver staining (IGSS) based U-bent fiberoptic sandwich biosensor, SPIE Biophotonics Australasia, Adelaide, Australia, 16-19 Oct 2016. Proc. SPIE 10013, doi:10.1117/12.2242980.
Christina Grace Charlet Christopher , Hariharan Manoharan, A Subrahmanyam, VVR Sai, Raman imaging of biofilms using gold sputtered fiber optic probes, SPIE Biophotonics Australasia, Adelaide, Australia, 16-19 Oct 2016. doi: 10.1117/12.2242973.
Christina Christopher, Priyanka Vasanthakumari, Gowri Annasamy, A Subrahmanyam, VVR Sai, SERS based Sandwich Immunosensing with Plasmonically Active Plastic Optical Fiber Sensor Probes, Optical Sensors, Optical Society of America (OSA), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 18-20 July 2016. doi: 10.1364/SENSORS.2016.SeW3E.7
Ramakrishna B and V V R Sai, Evanescent wave absorbance based U-bent fiber optic plasmonic sandwich immunobiosensor with 3 attomolar analyte detection limit, Biosensors World Congress 2016, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-27 May 2016.
Allwyn S Rajamani and V V R Sai, Development of Fiber Optic Array Biosensors for Multianalyte analysis, Optics with Life Sciences (OWLS) 2016, TIFR, Mumbai, 16-19 Mar 2016.
Christina Grace C, V V R Sai, A Subrahmanyam, Comparison of SERS activity of sputtered, electroless-plated and nanoparticle coated plastic fiber optic probes, IEEE Workshop on Recent Advances in Photonics (WRAP) 2015, IISc, Bangalore, 16,17 Dec 2015
Bandaru Ramakrishna and V V R Sai, "U-Bent Fiberoptic Evanescent Wave Absorbance Plasmonic Sandwich Biosensor: Silver Based Signal Enhancement, IEEE Workshop on Recent Advances in Photonics (WRAP) 2015, IISc, Bangalore 16,17 Dec 2015
Priyanka V and V V R Sai, Design of Fiber Optic Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Probe, International Discussion Meeting on Emerging themes in Plasmonics and Nanophotonics, Goa, India 2-4 Dec 2015
Gowri A and V V R Sai, LSPR U-bent Plastic Optical Fiber Probes for Refractive Sensing, International Discussion Meeting on Emerging themes in Plasmonics and Nanophotonics, Goa, India, 2-4 Dec 2015
Hariharan M and V V R Sai, Label Free Identification of Pathogens by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,International Discussion Meeting on Emerging themes in Plasmonics and Nanophotonics, Goa, India, 2-4 Dec 2015
V Priyanka, V V R Sai, C-P. Klages, "Atmospheric pressure plasma based development of plasmonically active polymer optical fiber probes," 10th Asian-European International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering (AEPSE2015), Jeju, South Korea, 21-24, Sept 2015.
Christina Christopher, A Subrahmanyam, V V R Sai, "Gold Sputtered U-bent optical fiber for refractive index measurement," Summer Institute 2015 held by IC-IMPACTS - Canada India Research Center for Excellence, Toronto, Canada, 15 – 19 July, 2015. (Best poster award).
B. Ramakrishna and V.V.R. Sai, "PEG protected bioactive plasmonic nanoparticle for reduction of non specific binding in optical fiber based sandwich immuno assay," 4th International Conference on Bio-Sensing Technology 2015 10-13 May 2015, Lisbon, Portugal.
B Ramakrishna and V V R Sai, "LSPR based U-bent fiber optic biosensor using gold nanoparticle as labels," International Conference on MEMS and Sensors (ICMEMSS) 2014, 18-20 Dec 2014, IIT Kharagpur.
B. Ramakrishna and V V R Sai, "Plasmonic Sandwich Immunoassay on Fiber Optic Sensor: Sensitivity Enhancement using Refractive Index Media," 12th International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics, 13-16 Dec 2014, IIT Madras, Chennai.
A. Gowri and V V R Sai, Surface Functionalisation of Plastic Optical Fiber for Biosensing, International workshop on Coatings & Surfaces for Biomedical Engineering (IWCSB) 2014, 16-19 Feb 2014, IIT Madras, Chennai.
Papasani M.R., Pokharel D., Giri A., Sai V.V.R., Hrdlicka P.J., Hill R.A., “Transformation of gold nanoparticles into effective gene silencing vectors by oligoethylene glycol passivation,” Nanotech Conference and Expo, Anaheim, CA, USA, 21-24 Jun, 2010.
Cheguru P., Østergaard M., Papasani M.R., Sai V.V.R., Wengel J., Hrdlicka P.J., Hill R.A., “Novel Nanoprobes to Detect mRNA in situ Directed Against Mouse Pyruvate Dehydrogenase,” Nanotech Conference and Expo, Anaheim, CA, USA, 21-24 Jun, 2010.
Jitendra Satija, V.V.R. Sai and Soumyo Mukherji “Effect of Gold Nanoparticle Coverage on U Bent Fiber Optic Sensors,” ISSS-MEMS conference, Kolkata, Oct, 2009.
V.V.R. Sai, Kamini Thakare, Reshma Bharadwaj, Tapanendu Kundu, Soumyo Mukherji, “Development of a Label-free Fiber Optic Biosensor based on Evanescent Wave Absorbance at 280nm for detection of proteins and bacteria,” ISSS-MEMS conference, Kolkata, Oct, 2009.
Sai V. V. R., Kamini Thakare, Chitra Deshmukh, Tapanendu Kundu, Susan Titus, Pradeep Kumar and Soumyo Mukherji, “Evanescent wave absorbance based U-bent fiber optic biosensor for pathogen detection” The 8th Workshop on Biosensors and Bioanalytical μ–Techniques in Environmental and Clinical Analysis, Montreal, Canada, 14-17 Jun 2009.
Sai V.V.R., Kundu T. and Mukherji S., “Evanescent absorbance based fiber optic biosensor: Optimization of fiber parameters” International conference on Nanotechnology and Healthcare Applications (NateHCA-07), Mumbai, India, Oct 2007.
Bharadwaj R., Vemulakonda S., Kundu T., Mukherji S., “A SPR Based Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Linear CMOS Detector” The 8th Workshop on Biosensors and Bioanalytical μ–Techniques in Environmental and Clinical Analysis, Goa, India, 3–6 Oct, 2007.
Venkataraman A., Mujawar L., Ruparelia J., Sai V.V.R., Contractor A.Q., Mukherji S. and Mukherji S., “A Polyaniline/Polystyrene sulfonate/Glutaraldehyde based sensor for detection of E. coli in water”, The 8th Workshop on Biosensors and Bioanalytical μ–Techniques in Environmental and Clinical Analysis, Goa, India, 3–6 Oct, 2007.
Gulia J., Sai V.V.R. and Mukherji S., “Development of a protocol for direct method of quantification of active binding sites on an immunobiosensor” nanoTX USA’07 International Nanotechnology Conference & Trade Expo, Dallas, Texas, USA, 2-4 Oct, 2007.
Sai V.V.R. and Mukherji S., “Immobilization and regeneration studies on optical fiber surfaces” International workshop on Biosensors (IWB 2006), BITS-Pilani, Goa, India, Feb 2006 (2nd best poster).
National Conference presentations:
Kavita Pujari, B Ramakrishna, V V R Sai, Fiber optic immunosensor using gold nanoparticles labels, Indian National Conference on Applied Mechanics (INCAM) 2013, 4-6 July 2013